THE SPIRIT OF DEFIANCE IN MENTORSHIP AMONGST BLACK MEN AND BOYS

Kelly N. Ferguson

Abstract


Black male students are disproportionately disciplined in schools, primarily for subjective acts of defiance. This scholarship explores how defiance is an integral force in the lives of Black males from boyhood to manhood and how schools can contribute to the development of this unique expression of resilience. Defiance is a personal and collective set of resistance strategies to counter the economic, racial and social constraints unique to Black life in American society and schools. When defiance is channelled constructively, Black males use it to foster productive academic, social and professional lives, and to counter negative stereotypes. Understanding the spirit of defiance will aid teachers, schools and communities in minimizing cultural misunderstandings that lead to punitive and exclusionary disciplinary referrals.


Keywords


Defiance, Discipline, Black Males, Mentorship, Disproportionality

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17349/jmc118211

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