RADICAL MEDIA IN INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION: THEORETICAL EXAMINATIONS

Krzysztof Wasilewski

Abstract


The media have become the main platform for intercultural communication. If the media are able to shape and frame the process of intercultural communication, what does it mean to minorities? One way for them to gain equal status in intercultural communication is producing their own media. However, entering public sphere without the intermediacy of mainstream media often fails, since minorities’ media are not only unable to reach broad public, but they also reproduce the economic, political and social status quo, much like mainstream media. I argue that the solution to the restricted and unequal access of minorities to public sphere, and as such to intercultural communication, is provided by radical media. Therefore I propose a model of intercultural public sphere comprised of minorities’ own media, radical media and mainstream media. In this model radical media occupy the center place, acting as an intermediary between the former and the latter.


Keywords


Intercultural communication, radical media, public sphere, hegemony, identity

Full Text:

PDF

References


(2012) Encyclopedia of Gender in Media. Edited by Mary Kosut, Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore, Washington, DC: SAGE Reference, 2002.

Alferink, Marga (2012): Post-Colonial Migrant Festivals in the Netherlands. In: Post-Colonial Immigrants and Identity Formations in the Netherlands, edited by Ulbe Bosma. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, pp. 99-116.

Alleyne-Dettmers, Patricia (1997): “Tribal Arts:” A Case Study of Global Compression in the Notting Hill Carnival. In: Living the Global City: Globalization as a Local Process, edited by John Eade. London and New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 161-178.

Applegate, Edd (2011): Journalism in the United States: Concepts and Issues. Lanham, Toronto: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2011.

Atton, Chris (2002): Alternative Media. London, Thousand Oaks, CA, New Delhi: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2002.

Atton, Chris, Hamilton, James F. (2008): Alternative Journalism. Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore, Washington DC: SAGE, 2008.

Buhle, Paul (1978): Italian-American Radicals and Labor in Rhode Island, 1905-1930. In: Radical History Review, 17, 121-152.

Caraver, Gavin (2000): The Effervescent Carnival: Performance, Context, and Mediation at Nothing Hill. In: New Theatre Quaterly, 61, pp. 34-49.

Cushman, Donald P., Cahn Jr., Dudley D. (1985): Communication in Interpersonal Relationships. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1985.

Dahlgren, Peter (1995): Television and the Public Sphere: Citizenship, Democracy and the Media. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: SAGE Publication, 1995.

Docker, John (1997): Postmodernism and Popular Culture: A Cultural History. New York, NY, Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Downing John D.H. (2001): Radical Media: Rebellious Communication and Social Movements. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage Publications, Inc., 2001.

Entman, Robert (1989): Democracy without Citizens: Media and the Decay of American Politics. New York, NY, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Forde, Susan (2017): Environmental Protest, Politics and Media Interactions: An Overview. In: Journalism and Climate Crisis: Public Engagement, Media Alternatives, edited by Robert A. Hackett, Susan Forde, Shane Gunster, K. Foxwell-Norton London and New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 77-93.

Fraser, Nancy (1990): Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique Actually Existing Democracy. In: Social Text, 25/26, 56-80.

Fraser, Nancy (1992). Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy. Massachusetts and London: The MIT Press, 1992.

Georgiou, Myria (2006): Diaspora, Identity and the Media: Diasporic Transnationalism and Mediated Spatialities. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 2006.

Georgiou, Myria (2012): Foreword. In: Mediating Cultural Diversity in a Globalised Public Space, edited by Isabelle Rigoni, Eugénie Saitta New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. xviii - x.

González, Mari (2011): Cross-Cultural vs. Intercultural [https://ixmaticommunications.com/2011/02/03/cross-cultural-vs-intercultural/].

Griffin, Cindy L. (1996): The Essentialist Roots of the Public Sphere: A Feminist Critique. In: Western Journal of Communication, 60(1), 21-39.

Gudykunst, William B. (2003): Cross-Cultural Communication: Introduction. In: Cross-Cultural and Intercultural Communication, edited by William B. Gudykunst. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: SAGE Publication.

Habermas, Jürgen (1991). The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. (trans. T. Burger). Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. 1991.

Habermas, Jürgen (1996): Between Facts and Norms. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1996.

Hall, Edward T. (1989). Beyond Culture. New York, NY: Doubleday. (Original work published in 1976).

Hall, Stuart (2005): Cultural Studies and the Center: Some Problematics and Problems. In: Culture, Media, Language: Working Papers in Cultural Studies, 1972-1979, edited by Stuart Hall, Dorothy Hobson, Andrew Lowe, Paul Willis. London, New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 2-35.

Hardy, Jonathan (2014): Critical Political Economy of the Media: An Introduction. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2014.

Howarth, Caroline (2011): Representations, identity and resistance in communication. In: The social psychology of communication, edited by Derek Hook, Bradley Franks, Martin Bauer. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 153-168.

Howarth, Caroline (2011): Representations, Identity, and Resistance in Communication. In: The Social Psychology of Communication, edited by Derek Hook, Bradley Franks, Martin W. Bauer. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 153-168.

Husband, Charles (2000): Media and the Public Sphere in Multi-Ethnic Societies. In: Ethnic Minorities and the Media, edited by Simon Cottle. Buckingham: Open University Press, pp. 199-214.

Itcaina, Xabier (2017): Conclusion: Popular Culture, Folk Traditions and Protest - A Research Agenda. In: Protest, Popular Culture and Tradition in Modern and Contemporary Western Europe, edited by Ilaria Favretto, Xabier Itcaina. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 229-248.

Jandt, Fred E. (2010): An Introduction to Intercultural Communication: Identities in a Global Community, 6th ed. Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore, Washington, DC: SAGE.

Kazin, Michael (2011): American Dreamers: How the Left Changed a Nation. New York, NY: Vintage Books, 2011.

Kessler, Lauren (1984): The Dissident Press: Alternative Journalism in American History. Beverly Hills, London, New Delhi: Sage Publications, Inc., 1984.

Kuzniewski, Anthony J. (1987): The Polish-American Press. In: The Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook, edited by Sally M. Miller: New York, NY, Westport, CT, London: Greenwood Press, pp. 275-290.

Lazảr, Ludmila (2012): Media as a Mediator of Intercultural Communication in the Age of Globalization. In: International Journal of Communication Research, 2(4), pp. 291-294.

Le Blanc, Paul (1999): A Short History of the U.S. Working Class. New York, NY: Humanity Books, 1999.

Leclair, Louise (2003): Carnivals against Capital: Rooted in Resistance. In: Representing Resistance: Media, Civil Disobedience, and the Global Justice Movement, edited by Endy Opel, Donnalyn Pompper. Westport, CT, London: Praeger, pp. 3-15.

Marwick, Alice E. (2013): Online Identity. In: A Companion to New Media Dynamics, edited by John Hartley, Jean Burgess, Axel Bruns. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 355-364.

Mayorga, Patricia R. (2007): Ethnic Media and Identity Construction: Content Analysis of the Visual Portrayals of Women in Latina and Glamour Magazines. In: ScholarWorks @ Georgia State University, 5-4, pp. 1-118.

Michels, Tony (2005): A Fire in Their Hearts: Yiddish Socialists in New York. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005.

Miller, Susan (1993): Textual Carnivals: The Politics of Composition. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993.

Myrdal, Gunnar (2004, originally published in 1944): The Negro Press. In: Mass Communication and American Social Thought: Key Texts, 1919-1968, edited by John D. Peters, Peter Simonson. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., pp. 206-209.

Németh, Lene M. (2007): “All it is, it’s a carnival:” Reading David Mamet’s Women Characters with Bakhtin. Debrecen: Kossuth Egyetemi Kiadó, 2007.

Ogunyemi, Ola (2015): Introduction: Conceptualizing the Media of Diaspora. In: Journalism, Audiences and Diaspora, edited by Ola Ogunyemi. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 1-14.

Potter, James, Cooper, Roger, Dupagne, Michel (1993): The Three Paradigms of Mass Media Research in Mainstream Communication. In: Communication Theory, 3(4), pp. 317-335.

Rennie, Ellie (2006): Community Media: A Global Introduction. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford: Rawman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2006.

Riggins, Stephen H. (1992): Inadvertent Assimilationism in the Canadian Native Press. In: Ethnic Minority Media: An International Perspective, edited by Stephen H. Riggins. Newbury Park, London, New Delhi: SAGE Publications, pp. 102-126.

Risse, Thomas (2010): A Community of Europeans? Transnational Identities and Public Spheres. London: Cornell University Press, 2010.

Sadri, Houman A., Flammia Madelyn (2011): Intercultural Communication: A New Approach to International Relations and Global Challenges. New York, NY, London: The Continuum International Publishing Group, 2011.

Silverman, Carol (1988): Negotiating “Gypsiness”: Strategy in Context. In: The Journal of American Folklore, vol. 101, pp. 261-275.

The Alternative Media Handbook (2007): Edited by Kate Coyer, Tony Dowmunt, Alan Fountain. London and New York, NY: Routledge, 2007.

Trenz, Hans-Jörg (2016): The Europeanisation of Political Communication: Conceptual Clarifications and Empirical Measurements. In: Mapping the European Public Sphere: Institutions, Media and Civil Society, edited by Cristiano Bee, Emanuela Bozzini. Oxon, New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 3-15.

Vasquez, Melba J.T. (2012): Foreword. In: Multiple Minority Identities: Applications for Practice, Research, and Training, edited by Reginald Nettles, Rochelle Balter. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, pp. xi - xiv.

Vecino, Lucia E., Ferrer Alicia F., Dallemagne, Gregory (2015): Discursive Inclusion and Hegemony: The Politics of Representation in Spanish Migrant Minority Media. In: Journalism, Audiences and Diaspora, edited by Ola Ogunyemi. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 87-103.

Viswanath, K., Ka-man Lee, Karen (2007): Ethnic Media. In: The New Americans: A Guide to Immigration Since 1965, edited by Mary C. Waters, Reed Ueda, Helen B. Marlow. Cambridge, MA, London: Harvard University Press, pp. 202-213.

Zervou, Regina (2017): Public Spheres, Counter Public Spheres… And Proletarian Public Spheres: The Case of Facebook Group of the Hellenic Halyvourgia S.A. Strikers in Greece 2011-2012. In: Estudos em Comunicação, 24, 133-152.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17349/jmc118105

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Media Critiques [JMC]

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.