TWO SIDES OF A COIN: EXPLICATING THE PLACE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN CRISIS MANAGEMENT

Isabel Paidamwoyo Gambura, Oberiri Destiny Apuke

Abstract


Social media has become the most used and most active mode of communication; however, studies on the use of social media and crisis management are in its embryonic stage. Therefore, this research contributes and extends to the body of knowledge by looking at the place of social media in crisis management. This study adopts a narrative review method. The narrative review was undertaken between October 2017 to January 2018 which entails sourcing and retrieving materials from an electronic database. This study found that the emergence of social media has changed the crisis communication landscape because it allows more interactivity. However, some crisis is catalysed by social media because of its nature. This means that crisis can be created in social media, distributed by social media, or both.  Nevertheless, the potency of social media as a crisis resolution tool is undisputable. 


Keywords


Crisis; crisis management; crisis communication; information; social media.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alpaslan, C. M., Green, S. E., & Mitroff, I. I. (2009). Corporate governance in the context of crises: Towards a stakeholder theory of crisis management. Journal of Contingencies And Crisis Management, 17(1), 38-49.

Apuke, O. D (2016). Social and Traditional Mainstream Media of Communication: Synergy and Variance Perspective. Journal of New Media and Mass Communication. Vol.53, pp 83-86.

Bantz, C. R. (1982). Exploring uses and gratifications: A comparison of reported uses of television and reported uses of favourite program type. Communication Research, 9(3), 352-379.

Baron, N. S. (2010). Always on: Language in an online and mobile world. Oxford University Press.

Beer, D. D. (2008). Social network (ing) sites… revisiting the story so far: A response to Danah Boyd & Nicole Ellison. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 13(2), 516-529.

Benoit, W. L. (1997). Image repair discourse and crisis communication. Public Relations Review, 23(2), 177-186.

Blumler, J. G. (1979). The role of theory in uses and gratifications studies. Communication Research, 6(1), 9-36.

Blumler, J. G., & Katz, E. (1974). The Uses of Mass Communications: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research. Sage. Annual Reviews of Communication Research Volume III.

Bradford, J. L., & Garrett, D. E. (1995). The effectiveness of corporate communicative responses to accusations of unethical behaviour. Journal of Business Ethics, 14(11), 875-892.

Briones, R. L., Kuch, B., Liu, B. F., & Jin, Y. (2011). Keeping up with the digital age: How the American Red Cross uses social media to build relationships. Public Relations Review, 37(1), 37-43.

Carroll, A., & Buchholtz, A. (2014). Business and Society: Ethics, sustainability, and stakeholder management. Nelson Education.

Cheung, C. M., Chiu, P. Y., & Lee, M. K. (2011). Online social networks: Why do students use Facebook? Computers in Human Behaviour, 27(4), 1337-1343.

Choi, Y., & Lin, Y. H. (2009). Consumer responses to Mattel product recall posted on online bulletin boards: Exploring two types of emotion. Journal of Public Relations Research, 21(2), 198-207.

Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (2001). An extended examination of the crisis situations: A fusion of the relational management and symbolic approaches. Journal of Public Relations Research, 13(4), 321-340.

Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (2008). Comparing apology to equivalent crisis response strategies: Clarifying apology's role and value in crisis communication. Public Relations Review, 34(3), 252-257.

Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (2010). PR strategy and application: Managing influence. Wiley-Blackwell.

Coombs, W. T., & Jean Holladay, S. (2014). How publics react to crisis communication efforts: Comparing crisis response reactions across sub-arenas. Journal of Communication Management, 18(1), 40-5.

Coombs, W., & Holladay, S. J. (2007). The negative communication dynamic: Exploring the impact of stakeholder affect on behavioural intentions. Journal of Communication Management, 11(4), 300-312.

Dellarocas, C. (2006). Strategic manipulation of internet opinion forums: Implications for consumers and firms. Management Science, 52(10), 1577-1593.

Dunbar, R. I., Arnaboldi, V., Conti, M., & Passarella, A. (2015). The structure of online social networks mirrors those in the offline world. Social Networks, 43, 39-47.

Dutta, S., & Pullig, C. (2011). The effectiveness of corporate responses to brand crises: The role of crisis type and response strategies. Journal of Business Research, 64(12), 1281-1287.

Dutta‐Bergman, M. J. (2006). Community participation and Internet use after September 11: Complementarity in channel consumption. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 11(2), 469-484.

Dutton, J. E., & Dukerich, J. M. (1991). Keeping an eye on the mirror: Image and identity in organizational adaptation. Academy of management journal, 34(3), 517-554.

Eisenlauer, V. (2013). A critical hypertext analysis of social media: The true colours of Facebook. A&C Black.

Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook “friends:” Social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 12(4), 1143-1168.

Ferguson, D. A., & Perse, E. M. (2000). The World Wide Web as a functional alternative to television. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44(2), 155-174.

Floreddu, P. B., & Cabiddu, F. (2014, July). Managing online reputation: the role of social media. In Toulon-Verona Conference" Excellence in Services".

Fombrun, C. J., & Van Riel, C. B. (1997). The reputational landscape. Corporate reputation review, 1(2), 5-13.

Fombrun, C. J., & Van Riel, C. B. (2004). Fame & Fortune: How successful companies build winning reputations. FT Press.

Fombrun, C. J., Gardberg, N. A., & Sever, J. M. (2000). The Reputation Quotient SM: A multi-stakeholder measure of corporate reputation. Journal of Brand Management, 7(4), 241-255.

Gonzalez-Herrero, A., & Smith, S. (2010). Crisis communications management 2.0: Organizational principles to manage the crisis in an online world. 1. Organization Development Journal, 28(1), 97.

Gonzalez-Herrero, A., & Smith, S. (2010). Crisis communications management 2.0: Organizational principles to manage the crisis in an online world. 1. Organization Development Journal, 28(1), 97.

Grunig, J.E., Hunt, T. (1984). Managing Public Relations. New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston

Jin, Y., Liu, B. F., & Austin, L. L. (2014). Examining the role of social media in effective crisis management: The effects of crisis origin, information form, and source on publics’ crisis responses. Communication Research, 41(1), 74-94.

Jones, B., Temperley, J., & Lima, A. (2009). Corporate reputation in the era of Web 2.0: the case of Primark. Journal of Marketing Management, 25(9-10), 927-939.

Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59-68.

Kaye, B. K. (2005). It's a blog, blog, blog world: Users and uses of weblogs. Atlantic Journal Of Communication, 13(2), 73-95.

Kelleher, T. (2009). Conversational voice, communicated commitment, and public relations outcomes in interactive online communication. Journal of Communication, 59(1), 172-188.

Kent, M. L., & Taylor, M. (2003). Maximizing media relations: A Website checklist. Public Relations Quarterly, 48(1), 14.

Khang, H., Ki, E. J., & Ye, L. (2012). Social media research in advertising, communication, marketing, and public relations, 1997–2010. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 89(2), 279-298.

Kliatchko, J. (2008). Revisiting the IMC construct: A revised definition and four pillars. International Journal of Advertising, 27(1), 133-160.

Lamberti, R. (2016). Police use of social media during a crisis. Journal of Professional Communication, 5(1).

LaRose, R., Mastro, D., & Eastin, M. S. (2001). Understanding Internet usage: A social-cognitive approach to uses and gratifications. Social Science Computer Review, 19(4), 395-413.

Lin, C. A. (1996). Standpoint: Looking back: The contribution of Blumler and Katz's uses of mass communication to communication research. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 40 (4), 574-581.

Lovejoy, K., Waters, R. D., & Saxton, G. D. (2012). Engaging stakeholders through Twitter: How nonprofit organizations are getting more out of 140 characters or less. Public Relations Review, 38(2), 313-318.

Lovelock, C. H., & Wirtz, J. (2010). Services Marketing Pearson Education.

Lu, J., & Weber, I. (2007). State, power and mobile communication: a case study of China. New Media & Society, 9(6), 925-944.

Lull, J. (1980). The social uses of television. Human Communication Research, 6(3), 197-209.

McQuail, D., & Windahl, S. (1981). Communication models for the study of mass communications. London: Sage

Palen, L., Vieweg, S., Sutton, J., Liu, S. B., & Hughes, A. (2007, October). Crisis informatics: Studying crisis in a networked world. In Third International Conference on e-Social Science (pp. 7-9).

Patriotta, G., Schultz, F., & Gond, J. P. (2008, July). The institutional work of justification: how actors make sense of disruptive events. In the 24th EGOS Colloquium, Amsterdam: European Group for Organizational Studies.

Pearson, C. M., & Clair, J. A. (1998). Reframing crisis management. Academy Of Management Review, 23(1), 59-76.

Quarantelli, E. L. (1998). Major criteria for judging disaster planning and managing their applicability in developing countries. https://dspace.udel.edu/bitstream/handle /19716/286/PP268.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Roberts, P. W., & Dowling, G. R. (2002). Corporate reputation and sustained superior financial performance. Strategic Management Journal, 23(12), 1077-1093.

Roche, S. P., Pickett, J. T., & Gertz, M. (2016). The scary world of online news? Internet news exposure and public attitudes toward crime and justice. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 32(2), 215-236.

Romenti, S., Murtarelli, G., & Valentini, C. (2014). Organisations' conversations in social media: applying dialogue strategies in times of crises. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 19(1), 10-33.

Ruggiero, T. E. (2000). Uses and gratifications theory in the 21st century. Mass Communication & Society, 3(1), 3-37.

Schultz, F., & Wehmeier, S. (2010). Online relationships. Manual Online Conversation, 409-433

Seltzer, T., & Mitrook, M. A. (2007). The dialogic potential of weblogs in relationship building. Public Relations Review, 33(2), 227-229.

Shirky, C. (2009). Newspapers and thinking the unthinkable. Risk Management, 56(3), 24.

Stenger, T. (2014). Social Media and Online Reputation Management as Practice: First Steps Towards Social CRM?. International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction (IJTHI), 10(4), 49-64.

Stephens, K. K., & Malone, P. (2010). New media for crisis communication: Opportunities for technical translation, dialogue, and stakeholder responses. The Handbook of Crisis Communication, 381-395.

Sweetser, K. D., & Metzgar, E. (2007). Communicating during the crisis: Use of blogs as a relationship management tool. Public Relations Review, 33(3), 340-342.

Tucker, L., & Melewar, T. C. (2005). Corporate reputation and crisis management: The threat and manageability of anti-corporatism. Corporate Reputation Review, 7(4), 377-387.

Utz, S., Schultz, F., & Glocka, S. (2013). Crisis communication online: How medium, crisis type, and emotions affected public reactions in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Public Relations Review, 39(1), 40-46.

Veil, S. R., Buehner, T., & Palenchar, M. J. (2011). A work‐in‐process literature review: Incorporating social media in risk and crisis communication. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 19(2), 110-122.

Wang, Y. (2015). Incorporating Social Media in Public Relations: A Synthesis of Social Media-Related Public Relations Research. Public Relations Journal, 9(3), 2.

Waters, R. D., Burnett, E., Lamm, A., & Lucas, J. (2009). Engaging stakeholders through social networking: How nonprofit organizations are using Facebook. Public Relations Review, 35(2), 102-106.

Watkins, B. (2014). An Integrated Approach to Sports Branding: Examining the Influence of Social Media on Brand Outcomes. International Journal of Integrated Marketing Communications, 6(2).

Weick, K. E. (1988). Enacted sensemaking in crisis situations [1]. Journal of Management Studies, 25(4), 305-317.

Wendling, C., Radisch, J., & Jacobzone, S. (2013). The use of social media in risk and crisis communication. https://ofti.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/43799_5k3v01fskp9s-2.pdf

White, C., & Raman, N. (2000). The World Wide Web as a public relations medium: The use of research, planning, and evaluation in Web site development. Public Relations Review, 25(4), 405-419.

Whiting, A., & Williams, D. (2013). Why people use social media: a uses and gratifications approach. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 16(4), 362-369.

Wright, D. K., & Hinson, M. D. (2008). How blogs and social media are changing public relations and the way it is practised. Public Relations Journal, 2(2), 1-21.

Wright, D. K., & Hinson, M. D. (2009). An updated look at the impact of social media on public relations practice. Public Relations Journal, 3(2), 1-27.

Yang, S. U., & Lim, J. S. (2009). The effects of blog-mediated public relations (BMPR) on relational trust. Journal of Public Relations Research, 21(3), 341-359.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17349/jmc118102

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Media Critiques [JMC]

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.